Neurology is the branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of disorders of the nervous system. The nervous system is a complex, sophisticated system that regulates and coordinates all the body activities.
It has two major divisions, Brain and Spinal cord including the peripheral nerves. The Neurologist treats disorders that affect the brain, spinal cord, and nerves it includes:
The brain and the spinal cord are well-protected organs that are encased within boney cages, the skull and the spinal canal respectively. This protective layer of bone brings a certain amount of complications with diagnosing problems with these organs. Unlike other organs, the brain and spinal cord cannot be seen or palpated or auscultated to be visualized. One method to overcome this is image technology.
Image technologies include regular x-rays and specialized –rays such as the computerized scan, or the CT scan. The Magnetic Resonance scan, or the MRI scan is another image technology. The MRI scan is the latest mode of investigation and it is a safer alternative as it does not use any radiation. Further, it brings out a clear image of the brain and blood vessels.
Another investigatory methodology employed in neurology is electrophysiological studies. The human brain produces an electricity equivalent to light a 40W bulb. This current passes through the spinal cord and the nerves. It is this electricity that is the fundamental basis of all movement and functions in the body. Studying the flow of this current is a great diagnostic tool in neurology. Common tests include the Electroencephalography or EEG, Nerve conduction velocity or NCV and Electromyography or EMG. Like the ECG test helps determine the functioning of the heart, these tests help in the diagnosis of many diseases related to the nervous system, such as epilepsy, nerve blocks and certain muscle diseases.
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