Neurology is the branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of disorders of the nervous system. The nervous system is a complex, sophisticated system that regulates and coordinates all the body activities.
It has two major divisions, Brain and Spinal cord including the peripheral nerves. The Neurologist treats disorders that affect the brain, spinal cord, and nerves it includes:
Brain and Spinal cord are well protected within boney cages namely skull and Spinal canal. So, like other organs we cannot see or palpate or auscultate these organs to find what's the problem. So, we have to depend on image technology to visualize these organs. The common modalities used are the plain x-ray or special x-ray namely Computerised scan or CT scan. But the latest mode of investigation is Magnetic Resonance scan or MRI. The advantage of MRI is there is no radiation. So, it is a very safe investigation. Moreover, we can see the brain and blood vessels very clearly as if we open and see them directly.
Another investigatory mode in Neurology is electrophysiological studies. As you know electricity equivalent to light a 40 watts’ bulb is produced from the human brain and this current pass through the spinal cord and nerves. Actually, this electricity is the fundamental basis of all movements, sensation and special senses like thinking, seeing, hearing, taste, control of urination and defecation. When this electricity is completely stopped, we may label the person as dead. In short brain is the power house or battery by which the human body works. So, studying the flow of this current help us to diagnosis of the function of the human brain and the nerves. The common tests are Electroencephalography or EEG, Nerve conduction velocity or NCV and Electromyography or EMG. Like ECG, giving the function of heart, these test s help in the diagnosis of many diseases like epilepsy, Nerve blocks and certain muscle diseases.